Study Guide Fall Semester Exam

known as “The Father of Texas.” * The group of families he brought to Texas was known as the Old 300.

7.COLONIZATION (continued) * The Mexican government sent Erasmo Seguin tohelp Stephen F. Austin because they trusted him to be loyal to Mexico. * Anglos moved to Texas for the cheap land, adventure, and to try toescape debt.  * Anglos who immigrated to Texas had to agree to pledgeloyalty to Spain.  * Soon afterwards, Texas belonged to Mexico, so“Texas” was actually just northern Mexico.  * Empresario land grantsallowed Mexico to populate Texas quickly. * Anglos had a problem withthe Mexican Constitution of 1824 because they had to convert theirreligion to Catholicism.  * The Constitution made it difficult forAnglos, Mexicans & slaves to live in the same community. * Nativeraids on Anglo settlements also made life in Texas difficult. * TheMexican government grew suspicious about settler’s rebellious behavior. *They sent in Manuel de Mier y Teran to investigate conditions in Texasand write a report about the Anglo settlers’ behavior.  * The Mier yTeran Report stated that Anglos outnumbered Mexicans by 10 to 1. The Lawof April 6, 1830 had 4 provisions: * No immigration from the U.S. *Cancelled all empresario land grants * Slaves cannot be brought to TX *Customs duties on U.S. goods As a result of the Anglo’s behavior,Mexican soldiers were sent to Texas to enforce the Law of April 6, 1830.* Anglos were extremely upset with these new laws. * Conventions wereheld in 1832 & 1833 to discuss resolutions to these new laws. *Stephen F. Austin went to Mexico City to deliver these resolutions(Allow immigration to Texas, Lower taxes and ask for a separate stategovernment in Texas) * While on his trip, S.F.A. was arrested fortreason and spent a year in a Mexican prison. 8.TEXAS REVOLUTION * Themain cause of the Texas Revolution was Anglo’s disagreements with theMexican government over laws they were unhappy with.  * The TexasRevolution could have been prevented if Mexico would have allowed Texasto become a separate state within Mexico.  8.TEXAS REVOLUTION(continued) * The Commander of the Texas Army was Sam Houston. * TheCommander of the Mexican Army was Santa Anna. He considered himself the“Napoleon of the West.” 9.BATTLE OF GONZALES This battle took place inGonzales, Texas. * Texans felt their right to keep the 6-pound cannonwas being violated and were willing to fight the Mexican Army. * TheTexans set up a defiant flag with the words, “Come And Take It.”10.BATTLE OF THE ALAMO * This battle occurred at the Alamo, which was aSpanish mission. * This battle lasted 13 days. * William B. Travis wasthe commander at the Alamo and wrote a famous letter asking for more mento help defend the Alamo.  * This letter has become known as the mostheroic document in Texas history. 11.GOLIAD MASSACRE  * This massacre of342 Texan soldiers occurred in Goliad, Texas on March 27, 1836.  * Itoccurred on Palm Sunday.  * Colonel James Fannin and his men wereexecuted by Mexican General Urrea. 12.BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO * This wasthe final battle of the Texas Revolution. * It lasted only 18 minutes;Texas won! * It is significant because Texas became independent fromMexico. 13.TEXAS INDEPENDENCE * Texas won its independence from Mexicoon April 21, 1836.  * Texas drafted its Declaration of Independence in1836 and modeled it after the U.S. Declaration of Independence of 1776. * George C. Childress was the author of this document. * After being anindependent republic for 9 years, Texas was annexed to the U.S. in1845. * Texas became the 28th state to join the U.S. 

1.PROJECTS *The best way to present a project would be to use oral, visual andwritten representations. * One example of doing this would be to presenta poster, or power point. * Primary sources: Original materials thattell us about the past. * Secondary sources: Interpret & analyzeprimary documents. 2. KEY TERMS & PEOPLE * Filibuster: A person whostole horses & sold them to the U.S. government. * Philip Nolan: Ahorse trader who encouraged natives to rebel against the Spanishgovernment. The Spanish thought he wanted to take over Texas. * AdamsOnis Treaty: Florida was ceded to the U.S. & the Sabine River wasset up as the eastern boundary of Texas. * Aztec Civilization: Inspiredthe name for modern day Mexico City. * The Aztec civilization declinedbecause of disease and war. * Physical Geography: Physical features ofthe earth. Examples: Mountains, rivers & lakes * Human Geography:Humans change their environment. Examples: Roads, houses & culture *Depletion: To decrease in size. * Annexation: To join together. *Historians divide the past into Eras to identify changes in historicalevents. * Empresario: An agent who makes arrangements to bring settlersto a colony * Relative Chronology: Description of time * AbsoluteChronology: Exact date * Jean LaFitte: Pirate from Galveston whoattacked Spanish ships. * Jane Long: Mother of Texas  * Estevanico:Traveled with Fray Marcos de Niza * Fray Marcos De Niza: Searched forthe 7 Cities of Cibola (gold) that Cabeza De Vaca spoke about. 3. 4MAJOR REGIONS OF TEXAS:  The regions of Texas vary in their populationas it depends on the natural resources of the land. 1. Coastal Plains:Most amount of rainfall 2. North Central Plains: Most variety of crops3. Great Plains: Consists of smaller subregions 4. Mountains &Basins: Highest land elevation & least amount of rainfall 4.RIVERSRivers serve as a source of drinking water, transportation, and serve asborders.  3 Rivers that Border Texas: * Red River * Rio Grande River *Sabine River 5.NATIVE AMERICANS Many Natives tribes were dependent onthe buffalo for survival. * The Buffalo provided many resources fornatives, such as: food, clothing & weapons. 6.SPANISH CONTROLSTEXAS/FRENCH COLONIZATION Spanish conquistadors came to the New Worldfor 3 main reasons (3 G’s):  * Gold, Glory & God * In 1519, Pinedamapped the Texas coast. * The Spanish built missions in an effort toconvert Natives to Christianity. * Near the missions, presidios werebuilt as military posts to protect the Missions and Spanish soldiers.  *The Spanish colonized Texas by establishing missions, presidios &civil settlements. * The Catholic church provided a reason for theSpanish to convert the natives to their religion. * As Spaniards triedto conquer land and get rich, the population of natives decreased.  *Slaves were used for free labor.  * The Spanish introduced the ranchingindustry to Texas, which consisted of vaqueros (Spanish Cowboys) and thecattle industry. * Father Miguel Hidalgo gave a famous speech called ElGrito de Dolores. * He led a rebellion in Mexico and encouraged thepeople to stand up and fight for their beliefs against the Spanishgovernment.  * French explorer, La Salle, built Fort St. Louis, whichwas not successful.    * The French also tried to convert natives toCatholicism and claim land for their king. 7. COLONIZATION Stephen F.Austin fulfilled his father’s dream and became